This section explains how energy is generated from the wind and how to identify opportunities to do this in your local area.
The cost of a wind energy project will vary depending on the scale, site and installation requirements. The efficiency and cost-effectiveness of turbines increases markedly with increasing size.
To give an example of the range, a building-mounted turbine with the capacity to generate 2.5kW would cost around £10,000 and may not payback in the equipment lifetime. Whereas a large scale turbine (1MW - 2.5MW) would cost £2 - £3.3 million and the payback period could range from five years to less than one year respectively.
For more detailed information on costs, funding and payback periods:
Timescales from inception to commissioning vary depending on the scale of the project:
Currently planning permission is required for all scales of turbine. Planning permission can be one of the biggest barriers to larger schemes and can cause significant delays. More information on planning permission is available on the ‘Wind energy project checklist'.
Wind turbines use the energy in the wind to turn a rotor, which drives a generator. The rotor either has a horizontal axis, which is the most common type, or a vertical axis.
The diagram on the left shows a horizontal axis turbine. The rotor blades join together at the hub, which is connected via a shaft to the gearbox and generator. In horizontal axis turbines, the generator is commonly housed in a box (nacelle).
The electricity they generate can be used directly, used to charge a battery, or converted from direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) using an inverter and then fed into the electricity grid.
Wind turbines are designed to work best within a certain range of wind speeds. The electricity generated by a wind turbine increases with the wind speed and the area of the rotor. Therefore it is important to consider the location and the type of turbine used very carefully.
See below for more information about types of wind turbines, scale, output, wind speed, managing installation and maintenance.
There are important issues to consider when identifying opportunities for wind energy. You may need to complete studies for planning permission to assess the impact of the project on the local area.
The ‘Wind energy project checklist' page provides a list of issues to check when looking for suitable sites for wind. This includes an explanation of designated areas and setback distances to consider as well as the planning process.
Here are some examples of how some councils are already using wind energy:
Checklist for installing a small wind turbine - on the RenewableUK website (formerly the British Wind Energy Association)
‘Delivering community benefits from wind energy development: a toolkit' (PDF, 52 pages, 540KB) - on the Centre for Sustainable Energy website
NOABL wind speed database - on the RenewableUK website
Wind power in the UK (2005) - on the Sustainable Development Commission website
10 March 2011