Page updated 2 October 2023. This is the front page of a set of resources PAS is developing to support local authorities moving towards the introduction of mandatory biodiversity net gain. It provides an overview of biodiversity net gain and why it is important. Links to further content are at the bottom of the page. PAS has a BNG practitioner network for local authority officers. A link to a form to join the network is available further down this page.
Overview of PAS BNG resources
What is biodiversity net gain?
Biodiversity net gain (BNG) is an approach to development, and/or land management, that aims to leave the natural environment in a measurably better state than it was beforehand.
The word ‘biodiversity’ comes from the term ‘biological diversity’. It refers to the variety of all living organisms, including animals, insects, plants, bacteria and fungi. More information on biodiversity and its importance can be found on the Royal Society's website and the LGA has an e-learning module for officers & councillors on biodiversity. A habitat is the area and resources used by a living organism or assemblage of animals and plants.
Biodiversity net gain delivers measurable improvements for biodiversity by creating or enhancing habitats in association with development. Biodiversity net gain can be achieved on-site, off-site or through a combination of on-site and off-site measures.
For a simple overview, view Natural England's Introduction to Biodiversity Net Gain on YouTube.
Natural England have also produced a Biodiversity Net Gain brochure, which provides an overview of BNG and its benefits.
Under the Environment Act 2021, all planning permissions granted in England (with a few exemptions) except for small sites will have to deliver at least 10% biodiversity net gain from January 2024. BNG will be required for small sites from April 2024. BNG will be measured using Defra’s biodiversity metric and habitats will need to be secured for at least 30 years. This sits alongside:
- a strengthened legal duty for public bodies to conserve and enhance biodiversity,
- new biodiversity reporting requirements for local authorities, and
- mandatory spatial strategies for nature: Local Nature Recovery Strategies or ‘LNRS’.
Further information about mandatory BNG and the Environment Act is available on our Biodiversity net gain now and in the future page.
Why is biodiversity net gain important?
The most recent State of Nature report, published in 2019, suggests there has been a 13% decline in the average abundance of wildlife in the UK since the 1970s. This is despite legislation and policy to protect biodiversity and wildlife.
Although certain sites and species are protected, there are limited mechanisms to value, maintain, enhance and create wildlife habitats beyond protected sites. As a result, most habitats continue to be lost to development, reducing nature's ability to connect and thrive.
BNG is additional to existing habitat and species protections. BNG aims to create new habitat as well as enhance existing habitats.
Nature is important in its own right, but it is also is essential for the processes that support all life on Earth, including humans. The natural environment provides benefits to us all through 'ecosystem services'.
For local authorities, BNG links to a range of agendas including:
- addressing the climate emergency
- green infrastructure
- access to greenspace and nature
- mental and physical health and wellbeing
- flood resilience
- improving air quality
Why do biodiversity net gain now?
The Environment Act 2021 makes biodiversity net gain mandatory for all but small sites and some exemptions from an as-yet unconfirmed date in January 2024 and for small sites from April 2024. Councils will need to be ready to meet the new legal requirements then – so why should you start thinking about biodiversity net gain now?
BNG is already required through national planning policy in England and Wales, and can be achieved on site, off site, or through a combination of on-site and off-site measures. You can find more information about this on our Biodiversity net gain now and in the future page.
There is a lot of preparation required to get ready for the new legal requirements, including planning decision-making and policy, but it’s also worth thinking beyond the essentials:
- BNG is not just about planning. You could start thinking now about how you could join up across council services.
- Have you declared a climate and ecological emergency? BNG is an action you can take in your plan to address these twin emergencies.
- BNG links into place-making and infrastructure and you can start thinking and gathering evidence now about:
- what you want your borough’s natural environment to look like, and
- how the natural environment can deliver for local people.
- Local Nature Recovery Strategies (LNRS) will be produced at the county, unitary or combined authority level and there will be other opportunities associated with working with neighbouring authorities on BNG.
- BNG will involve local communities, landowners and farmers, especially where delivery of BNG happens off the development site.
- Defra and Natural England are developing policy and secondary legislation on BNG, so you can test approaches and feed in experience if you start doing BNG now.
- BNG will need expertise and resourcing, so it is worth considering what you will need now.
- There are concerns that there will a rush of non-BNG planning applications before it becomes mandatory in those areas that haven't already implemented BNG, so you can avoid this if you start now.
This article in LGA's first magazine highlights why councils should start thinking about and planning for biodiversity net gain now.
This Defra blog of 20 July 2023 summarises what’s happened and what’s coming next in terms of BNG policies and framework and this September 2023 Government press release provides an overview of the timetable for mandatory BNG.